DNA vs RNA

This article is all about DNA vs RNA. It displays the major factors which differentiate these two genetic materials or nucleic acids from each other either in their structure or function.


DNA-vs-RNA
DNA vs RNA

DNA
RNA
1. Indicates the term “Deoxyribonucleic  acid.”

1. Indicates the term “Ribonucleic acid.”
2. Mostly found in the nucleus and nucleotide of the cell.

2. Mostly found in the cytoplasm of the cell.
3. Sugar is “Deoxyribose.”

3. Sugar is “Ribose.”
4. Bases are “A, T, C, and G.”

4. Bases are “ A, U, C, and G.”
5. Lack Uracil.

5. Lack Thymine.
6. A bonds T and C bonds  G.

6. A bonds U and C bonds G.
7. It is a large molecule.

7. It is a short fragment.
8. It is double-stranded and exists in a   double-helical structure.

8. It exists mostly in single-stranded form, rarely form secondary and tertiary structures.
9. Easily damaged by UV radiation.

9. Less prone to UV radiation.
10.  Prefers “B” form.

10. Prefer “A” form.
11. Carries the genetic information necessary for development, functioning,    and reproduction.

11. Mainly involved in protein synthesis, sometimes take part in the regulation of gene expression.


               
(Deoxyribonucleic acid) DNA 
                                                    
DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid, and it is a nucleic acid that contains all the genetic instructions used in the development of all existing living organisms.  It is a compound that exists in the chromosomes inside the nucleus of the Cells. Almost every cell in a persons' body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the nucleus, where it is known by the title of nuclear DNA, and a small quantity of DNA is also found in the mitochondria, Where it is known by the title of mitochondrial DNA
   
DNA-vs-RNA
Structure and Bases of DNA
        
(Ribonucleic acid) RNA

RNA is an abbreviation for ribonucleic acid.  RNA is a nucleic acid comprising a long chain of nucleotide units.  Each nucleotide unit is made up of a nitrogenous base, the sugar molecule "ribose," and a phosphate group.  The phosphate group is connected to one of the carbons of the ribose and also a base, either Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G) or Uracil (U), is attached to another carbon.

DNA  and  RNA are the chemical transporters of  Hereditary information in all known organisms. In most organisms, DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) stores the genetic information and transports it to the progeny. RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is mostly involved in the shifting of genetic code for protein synthesis.  Some viruses also use RNA as their genetic material.  DNA is chiefly seen in the nucleus, whereas  RNA  is located in the cytoplasm of the cell.  The critical distinction between DNA and RNA is that DNA is made up of deoxyribose contained in its own pentose ring, and RNA consists of ribose in its pentose ring.
DNA-vs-RNA
Structure and Bases of RNA

Sugar phosphate backbone in DNA is shaped by nitrogenous bases and phosphate groups attached to the sugar deoxyribose.  CH bonds in deoxyribose sugar are less reactive. That's why DNA is significantly stable in alkaline conditions.  Four different nitrogenous bases could be recognized in DNA: Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), Adenine (A), and Thymine (T).  Both polynucleotide strands of DNA are held together by hydrogen bonds, involving bases complementary to each other. Adenine (A) pairs with Thymine (T) whereas Cytosine (C) pairs with Guanine (G). Therefore, each strand is complementary.  Both polynucleotide strands are additionally coiled to create a double helix.  Each strand in the double helix operates in opposite directions, which makes the 2 strands antiparallel.  The asymmetric ends of the strand are recognized as 5′, along with the 3′ ends.  Major groove (22 Å broad ) and minor groove (12 Å broad ) can be discovered inside the double helix.

RNA is a polynucleotide made up of nucleotide monomers like DNA.  RNA has a far shorter strand when compared with DNA.  Ribose is the sugar that creates the sugar-phosphate backbone.  Ribose is much reactive because of the hydroxyl group at the 2′ position of the pentose ring.  Consequently, RNA does not show stability in alkaline conditions because of the presence of two minor grooves.  The nitrogenous bases found in RNA are Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), Adenine (A) and Uracil (U).  Unlike DNA, RNA exists as a single-stranded molecule all the time, but it could form double-stranded secondary structures like hairpin loops by complementary base pairing; Adenine (A) pairs with Uracil (U) whereas cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G).

The most common conformation of DNA in all organisms is the Beta form (B-form).  The arrangement in which the four bases are organized along the backbone encodes biological data within DNA stretches termed as genes.  DNA synthesizes the same copy of the parental DNA, for reproduction.  DNA is easily damaged by ultraviolet light. 

The majority of the functional forms of  RNA  exhibit tertiary structure.   The most biologically active  RNA  forms are messenger  RNA  (mRNA),  transfer  RNA  (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), along with other noncoding RNA (ncRNA).  The mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA are linked to protein synthesis. The ncRNA is involved in RNA processing and gene regulation.  Some RNAs such as ribozymes are capable of catalyzing chemical reactions.  Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) play a vital role in gene regulation by RNA interference.  Transcription is the process in which the RNA synthesis is occurred utilizing the DNA as the template.  RNA polymerase is the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction.  RNA is not ruined by ultraviolet light easily. 

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Cheers,
Saqi
  








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